we knew not whether we were in heaven or on earth

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mediumaevum:

(Flailing!)

Re-enactment groups, collectors, historians and serving soldiers helped photographer Thom Atkinson assemble the components for each shot. ‘It was hard to track down knowledgeable people with the correct equipment,’ he says. ‘The pictures are really the product of their knowledge and experience.’

  1. 1066 huscarl, Battle of Hastings
  2. 1244 mounted knight, Siege of Jerusalem
  3. 1415 fighting archer, Battle of Agincourt
  4. 1485 Yorkist man-at-arms, Battle of Boswort

(The photo shoot contains 13 kits total. Make sure to view them all here)

(via dwarrowdams)

Filed under armour medieval history

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Christina of Denmark (1521-1590)
“If I had two heads, one should be at the King of England’s disposal.” - Christina is rumored to have said this to the English ambassador, Philip Hoby.
From 1538 to 1539, Henry VIII engaged in marriage negotiations in order to make the sixteen-year-old Christina of Denmark his fourth wife. Christina was the daughter of Christian II of Denmark and a niece of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (and thus a great-niece of Henry’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon.) She had married the Duke of Milan in 1534, but the duke had died and left his young wife a widow a year later. There were several impediments to a marriage between Henry and Christina, however, including unresolved dowry negotiations and the fact that the match would need papal approval due to Christina’s relationship to Henry’s first wife. Because Henry had severed England’s ties with the Catholic Church in 1534, however, he was unwilling to defer to papal power ever again.
The most interesting impediment to the match was, however, Christina herself. She was a powerful widow with influential family allies, and she had the luxury of choice when it came to her second marriage. According to J. J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII’s biographer, “she was far from comfortable at the prospect of becoming the king’s fourth wife, ‘for her Council suspecteth that her great aunt was poisoned, that the second was put to death and the third lost for lack of keeping her child-bed’. It was not surprising that, before succeeding these three women, the spirited duchess should have been anxious for guarantees of the safety of her person.”
Christina did not become the fourth wife of Henry VIII. The king instead married Anne of Cleves in 1540, and their marriage was annulled within a year so that Henry could marry his fifth wife, Catherine Howard. In 1541, Christina married Charles, Duke of Lorraine, and, after his death, she became regent for their son.

Christina of Denmark (1521-1590)

If I had two heads, one should be at the King of England’s disposal.” - Christina is rumored to have said this to the English ambassador, Philip Hoby.

From 1538 to 1539, Henry VIII engaged in marriage negotiations in order to make the sixteen-year-old Christina of Denmark his fourth wife. Christina was the daughter of Christian II of Denmark and a niece of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (and thus a great-niece of Henry’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon.) She had married the Duke of Milan in 1534, but the duke had died and left his young wife a widow a year later. There were several impediments to a marriage between Henry and Christina, however, including unresolved dowry negotiations and the fact that the match would need papal approval due to Christina’s relationship to Henry’s first wife. Because Henry had severed England’s ties with the Catholic Church in 1534, however, he was unwilling to defer to papal power ever again.

The most interesting impediment to the match was, however, Christina herself. She was a powerful widow with influential family allies, and she had the luxury of choice when it came to her second marriage. According to J. J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII’s biographer, “she was far from comfortable at the prospect of becoming the king’s fourth wife, ‘for her Council suspecteth that her great aunt was poisoned, that the second was put to death and the third lost for lack of keeping her child-bed’. It was not surprising that, before succeeding these three women, the spirited duchess should have been anxious for guarantees of the safety of her person.”

Christina did not become the fourth wife of Henry VIII. The king instead married Anne of Cleves in 1540, and their marriage was annulled within a year so that Henry could marry his fifth wife, Catherine Howard. In 1541, Christina married Charles, Duke of Lorraine, and, after his death, she became regent for their son.

(Source: thisfalconwhite, via bronzedragon)

Filed under christina of denmark history

6 notes

ravingcelt009:

The 'Triumph of Orthodoxy', an icon painted in Constantinople. c. 1400. It is a copy of an earlier icon that commemorated the restoration of icon veneration in 843. On the upper level, Empress Theodora and her young son Michael III and Patriarch Methodios and priests flank an image of the Virgin and Child. Below stand a group of iconophile martyrs and holy figures.

The 8th and 9th centuries saw the Byzantine Empire rocked by the religious controversy over the veneration of icons, known today as iconoclasm. The sudden onslaught of the Arab invaders in the 600s AD, and resulting loss of over half of the empire’s territories, prompted many to speculate that Divine Favour had turned against the Christian Empire. The reverence shown to icons of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and various saints and holy martyrs was quickly pointed out as the most likely cause of God’s displeasure, as it so easily mirrored the practice of idolatry, that is, the worshipping of false gods in place of the one true God (as proscribed by the Third Commandment: "You shall have no other gods before Me. You shall not make for yourself an idol, or any likeness of what is in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the water under the earth. You shall not worship them or serve them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God…"). Added weight was given to this argument as the invading Muslims were noted for their refusal to allow depictions of either God or his prophet Muhammad.
In two separate periods, 730-787 and 814-842 AD, iconoclast Emperors and their heirs ordered the removal and destruction of various icons from the Empire’s many churches and the persecution of their many venerators and creators, as well as installing vast mosaics of the Cross in the removed icons instead (the Cross being a most potent symbol of Christ’s power).
Interestingly, both of these phases of religiously motivated destruction were brought to an end by women wielding imperial power. The Empresses Irene and Theodora, ruling in the name of their infant sons, called for Ecumenical Councils of the Christian Church, inviting representatives from the four major Patriarchates in Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, and Alexandria, where they denounced iconoclasm as an unwelcome innovation in Christian tradition (arguing that God’s decision to shape his one and only Son in the image of a mortal man allowed for the representing of Christ, his mother, and countless other holy figures, in paint and wood) and restoring the Orthodox adoration of icons.

ravingcelt009:

The 'Triumph of Orthodoxy', an icon painted in Constantinople. c. 1400. It is a copy of an earlier icon that commemorated the restoration of icon veneration in 843. On the upper level, Empress Theodora and her young son Michael III and Patriarch Methodios and priests flank an image of the Virgin and Child. Below stand a group of iconophile martyrs and holy figures.

The 8th and 9th centuries saw the Byzantine Empire rocked by the religious controversy over the veneration of icons, known today as iconoclasm. The sudden onslaught of the Arab invaders in the 600s AD, and resulting loss of over half of the empire’s territories, prompted many to speculate that Divine Favour had turned against the Christian Empire. The reverence shown to icons of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and various saints and holy martyrs was quickly pointed out as the most likely cause of God’s displeasure, as it so easily mirrored the practice of idolatry, that is, the worshipping of false gods in place of the one true God (as proscribed by the Third Commandment: "You shall have no other gods before Me. You shall not make for yourself an idol, or any likeness of what is in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the water under the earth. You shall not worship them or serve them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God…"). Added weight was given to this argument as the invading Muslims were noted for their refusal to allow depictions of either God or his prophet Muhammad.

In two separate periods, 730-787 and 814-842 AD, iconoclast Emperors and their heirs ordered the removal and destruction of various icons from the Empire’s many churches and the persecution of their many venerators and creators, as well as installing vast mosaics of the Cross in the removed icons instead (the Cross being a most potent symbol of Christ’s power).

Interestingly, both of these phases of religiously motivated destruction were brought to an end by women wielding imperial power. The Empresses Irene and Theodora, ruling in the name of their infant sons, called for Ecumenical Councils of the Christian Church, inviting representatives from the four major Patriarchates in Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, and Alexandria, where they denounced iconoclasm as an unwelcome innovation in Christian tradition (arguing that God’s decision to shape his one and only Son in the image of a mortal man allowed for the representing of Christ, his mother, and countless other holy figures, in paint and wood) and restoring the Orthodox adoration of icons.

Filed under byzantine empire history

716 notes

nubbsgalore:

swimming with whale sharks, the planet’s largest living non mammalian vertebrate. now listed as a vulnerable species, populations of these gentle giants have fallen due to harpoon fisheries in southeast asia, where a single one of their fins can sell for over 15,000 dollars. 

photos by (click pic) shawn heinrichs and steve de neef in oslob, cebu, philippines; peter verhhoog in ningaloo reef, 800 miles off the coast of western australia; paul cowell and mark erdmann in west papua, indonesia; and thomas peschak in the gulf of tadjoura, djibouti and the maldives. 

(via hesperos)

Filed under whale sharks animals